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21.6 Binary morphology

# 21.6 Binary morphology

 generate_binary_structure( rank, connectivity)
The generate_binary_structure functions generates a binary structuring element for use in binary morphology operations. The rank of the structure must be provided. The size of the structure that is returned is equal to three in each direction. The value of each element is equal to one if the square of the Euclidean distance from the element to the center is less or equal to connectivity. For instance, two dimensional 4-connected and 8-connected structures are generated as follows:
```>>> print generate_binary_structure(2, 1)
[[0 1 0]
[1 1 1]
[0 1 0]]
>>> print generate_binary_structure(2, 2)
[[1 1 1]
[1 1 1]
[1 1 1]]
```

Most binary morphology functions can be expressed in terms of the basic operations erosion and dilation:

 binary_erosion( input, structure=None, iterations=1, mask=None, output=None, border_value=0, origin=0)
The binary_erosion function implements binary erosion of arrays of arbitrary rank with the given structuring element. The origin parameter controls the placement of the structuring element as described in section 21.3. If no structuring element is provided, an element with connectivity equal to one is generated using generate_binary_structure. The border_value parameter gives the value of the array outside boundaries. The erosion is repeated iterations times. If iterations is less than one, the erosion is repeated until the result does not change anymore. If a mask array is given, only those elements with a true value at the corresponding mask element are modified at each iteration.

 binary_dilation( input, structure=None, iterations=1, mask=None, output=None, border_value=0, origin=0)
The binary_dilation function implements binary dilation of arrays of arbitrary rank with the given structuring element. The origin parameter controls the placement of the structuring element as described in section 21.3. If no structuring element is provided, an element with connectivity equal to one is generated using generate_binary_structure. The border_value parameter gives the value of the array outside boundaries. The dilation is repeated iterations times. If iterations is less than one, the dilation is repeated until the result does not change anymore. If a mask array is given, only those elements with a true value at the corresponding mask element are modified at each iteration.

Here is an example of using binary_dilation to find all elements that touch the border, by repeatedly dilating an empty array from the border using the data array as the mask:

```>>> struct = array([[0, 1, 0], [1, 1, 1], [0, 1, 0]])
>>> a = array([[1,0,0,0,0], [1,1,0,1,0], [0,0,1,1,0], [0,0,0,0,0]])
>>> print a
[[1 0 0 0 0]
[1 1 0 1 0]
[0 0 1 1 0]
[0 0 0 0 0]]
>>> print binary_dilation(zeros(a.shape), struct, -1, a, border_value=1)
[[1 0 0 0 0]
[1 1 0 0 0]
[0 0 0 0 0]
[0 0 0 0 0]]
```

The binary_erosion and binary_dilation functions both have an iterations parameter which allows the erosion or dilation to be repeated a number of times. Repeating an erosion or a dilation with a given structure n times is equivalent to an erosion or a dilation with a structure that is n-1 times dilated with itself. A function is provided that allows the calculation of a structure that is dilated a number of times with itself:

 iterate_structure( structure, iterations, origin=None)
The iterate_structure function returns a structure by dilation of the input structure iteration - 1 times with itself. For instance:
```>>> struct = generate_binary_structure(2, 1)
>>> print struct
[[0 1 0]
[1 1 1]
[0 1 0]]
>>> print iterate_structure(struct, 2)
[[0 0 1 0 0]
[0 1 1 1 0]
[1 1 1 1 1]
[0 1 1 1 0]
[0 0 1 0 0]]
```
If the origin of the original structure is equal to 0, then it is also equal to 0 for the iterated structure. If not, the origin must also be adapted if the equivalent of the iterations erosions or dilations must be achieved with the iterated structure. The adapted origin is simply obtained by multiplying with the number of iterations. For convenience the iterate_structure also returns the adapted origin if the origin parameter is not None:
```>>> print iterate_structure(struct, 2, -1)
(array([[0, 0, 1, 0, 0],
[0, 1, 1, 1, 0],
[1, 1, 1, 1, 1],
[0, 1, 1, 1, 0],
[0, 0, 1, 0, 0]], type=Bool), [-2, -2])
```

Other morphology operations can be defined in terms of erosion and d dilation. Following functions provide a few of these operations for convenience:

 binary_opening( input, structure=None, iterations=1, output=None, origin=0)
The binary_opening function implements binary opening of arrays of arbitrary rank with the given structuring element. Binary opening is equivalent to a binary erosion followed by a binary dilation with the same structuring element. The origin parameter controls the placement of the structuring element as described in section 21.3. If no structuring element is provided, an element with connectivity equal to one is generated using generate_binary_structure. The iterations parameter gives the number of erosions that is performed followed by the same number of dilations.

 binary_closing( input, structure=None, iterations=1, output=None, origin=0)
The binary_closing function implements binary closing of arrays of arbitrary rank with the given structuring element. Binary closing is equivalent to a binary dilation followed by a binary erosion with the same structuring element. The origin parameter controls the placement of the structuring element as described in section 21.3. If no structuring element is provided, an element with connectivity equal to one is generated using generate_binary_structure. The iterations parameter gives the number of dilations that is performed followed by the same number of erosions.

 binary_fill_holes( input, structure = None, output = None, origin = 0)
The binary_fill_holes function is used to close holes in objects in a binary image, where the structure defines the connectivity of the holes. The origin parameter controls the placement of the structuring element as described in section . If no structuring element is provided, an element with connectivity equal to one is generated using generate_binary_structure.

 binary_hit_or_miss( input, structure1=None, structure2=None, output=None, origin1=0, origin2=None)
The binary_hit_or_miss function implements a binary hit-or-miss transform of arrays of arbitrary rank with the given structuring elements. The hit-or-miss transform is calculated by erosion of the input with the first structure, erosion of the logical not of the input with the second structure, followed by the logical and of these two erosions. The origin parameters control the placement of the structuring elements as described in section 21.3. If origin2 equals None it is set equal to the origin1 parameter. If the first structuring element is not provided, a structuring element with connectivity equal to one is generated using generate_binary_structure, if structure2 is not provided, it is set equal to the logical not of structure1.

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