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11.8. fnmatch — Unix filename pattern matching — Python v2.6.2 documentation

11.8. fnmatch — Unix filename pattern matching¶

This module provides support for Unix shell-style wildcards, which are not the same as regular expressions (which are documented in the re module). The special characters used in shell-style wildcards are:

Pattern Meaning
* matches everything
? matches any single character
[seq] matches any character in seq
[!seq] matches any character not in seq

Note that the filename separator ('/' on Unix) is not special to this module. See module glob for pathname expansion (glob uses fnmatch() to match pathname segments). Similarly, filenames starting with a period are not special for this module, and are matched by the * and ? patterns.

fnmatch.fnmatch(filename, pattern)¶

Test whether the filename string matches the pattern string, returning true or false. If the operating system is case-insensitive, then both parameters will be normalized to all lower- or upper-case before the comparison is performed. If you require a case-sensitive comparison regardless of whether that’s standard for your operating system, use fnmatchcase() instead.

This example will print all file names in the current directory with the extension .txt:

import fnmatch
import os

for file in os.listdir('.'):
    if fnmatch.fnmatch(file, '*.txt'):
        print file
fnmatch.fnmatchcase(filename, pattern)¶
Test whether filename matches pattern, returning true or false; the comparison is case-sensitive.
fnmatch.filter(names, pattern)¶

Return the subset of the list of names that match pattern. It is the same as [n for n in names if fnmatch(n, pattern)], but implemented more efficiently.

New in version 2.2.

fnmatch.translate(pattern)¶

Return the shell-style pattern converted to a regular expression.

Example:

>>> import fnmatch, re
>>>
>>> regex = fnmatch.translate('*.txt')
>>> regex
'.*\\.txt$'
>>> reobj = re.compile(regex)
>>> print reobj.match('foobar.txt')
<_sre.SRE_Match object at 0x...>

See also

Module glob
Unix shell-style path expansion.
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