New in version 2.5.
A simple example (this is not recommended as a real way of generating HTML!):
from contextlib import contextmanager @contextmanager def tag(name): print "<%s>" % name yield print "</%s>" % name >>> with tag("h1"): ... print "foo" ... <h1> foo </h1>
At the point where the generator yields, the block nested in the with statement is executed. The generator is then resumed after the block is exited. If an unhandled exception occurs in the block, it is reraised inside the generator at the point where the yield occurred. Thus, you can use a try...except...finally statement to trap the error (if any), or ensure that some cleanup takes place. If an exception is trapped merely in order to log it or to perform some action (rather than to suppress it entirely), the generator must reraise that exception. Otherwise the generator context manager will indicate to the with statement that the exception has been handled, and execution will resume with the statement immediately following the with statement.
Combine multiple context managers into a single nested context manager.
Code like this:
from contextlib import nested with nested(A(), B(), C()) as (X, Y, Z): do_something()
is equivalent to this:
m1, m2, m3 = A(), B(), C() with m1 as X: with m2 as Y: with m3 as Z: do_something()
Note that if the __exit__() method of one of the nested context managers indicates an exception should be suppressed, no exception information will be passed to any remaining outer context managers. Similarly, if the __exit__() method of one of the nested managers raises an exception, any previous exception state will be lost; the new exception will be passed to the __exit__() methods of any remaining outer context managers. In general, __exit__() methods should avoid raising exceptions, and in particular they should not re-raise a passed-in exception.
Return a context manager that closes thing upon completion of the block. This is basically equivalent to:
from contextlib import contextmanager @contextmanager def closing(thing): try: yield thing finally: thing.close()
And lets you write code like this:
from contextlib import closing import urllib with closing(urllib.urlopen('http://www.python.org')) as page: for line in page: print line
without needing to explicitly close page. Even if an error occurs, page.close() will be called when the with block is exited.