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Mot de passe oublié ?Je m'inscris ! (gratuit) Defining options Defining options

Each Option instance represents a set of synonymous command-line option strings, e.g. -f and --file. You can specify any number of short or long option strings, but you must specify at least one overall option string.

The canonical way to create an Option instance is with the add_option() method of OptionParser:

parser.add_option(opt_str[, ...], attr=value, ...)

To define an option with only a short option string:

parser.add_option("-f", attr=value, ...)

And to define an option with only a long option string:

parser.add_option("--foo", attr=value, ...)

The keyword arguments define attributes of the new Option object. The most important option attribute is action, and it largely determines which other attributes are relevant or required. If you pass irrelevant option attributes, or fail to pass required ones, optparse raises an OptionError exception explaining your mistake.

An options's action determines what optparse does when it encounters this option on the command-line. The standard option actions hard-coded into optparse are:

store this option's argument (default)
store a constant value
store a true value
store a false value
append this option's argument to a list
append a constant value to a list
increment a counter by one
call a specified function
print a usage message including all options and the documentation for them

(If you don't supply an action, the default is store. For this action, you may also supply type and dest option attributes; see below.)

As you can see, most actions involve storing or updating a value somewhere. optparse always creates a special object for this, conventionally called options (it happens to be an instance of optparse.Values). Option arguments (and various other values) are stored as attributes of this object, according to the dest (destination) option attribute.

For example, when you call


one of the first things optparse does is create the options object:

options = Values()

If one of the options in this parser is defined with

parser.add_option("-f", "--file", action="store", type="string", dest="filename")

and the command-line being parsed includes any of the following:

-f foo
--file foo

then optparse, on seeing this option, will do the equivalent of

options.filename = "foo"

The type and dest option attributes are almost as important as action, but action is the only one that makes sense for all options.

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