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18.2.5 Functions

18.2.5 Functions

These are useful if you want more control, or if you want to employ some of the algorithms implemented in this module in other circumstances.

parse( fp[, keep_blank_values[, strict_parsing]])
Parse a query in the environment or from a file (the file defaults to sys.stdin). The keep_blank_values and strict_parsing parameters are passed to parse_qs() unchanged.

parse_qs( qs[, keep_blank_values[, strict_parsing]])
Parse a query string given as a string argument (data of type application/x-www-form-urlencoded). Data are returned as a dictionary. The dictionary keys are the unique query variable names and the values are lists of values for each name.

The optional argument keep_blank_values is a flag indicating whether blank values in URL encoded queries should be treated as blank strings. A true value indicates that blanks should be retained as blank strings. The default false value indicates that blank values are to be ignored and treated as if they were not included.

The optional argument strict_parsing is a flag indicating what to do with parsing errors. If false (the default), errors are silently ignored. If true, errors raise a ValueError exception.

Use the urllib.urlencode() function to convert such dictionaries into query strings.

parse_qsl( qs[, keep_blank_values[, strict_parsing]])
Parse a query string given as a string argument (data of type application/x-www-form-urlencoded). Data are returned as a list of name, value pairs.

The optional argument keep_blank_values is a flag indicating whether blank values in URL encoded queries should be treated as blank strings. A true value indicates that blanks should be retained as blank strings. The default false value indicates that blank values are to be ignored and treated as if they were not included.

The optional argument strict_parsing is a flag indicating what to do with parsing errors. If false (the default), errors are silently ignored. If true, errors raise a ValueError exception.

Use the urllib.urlencode() function to convert such lists of pairs into query strings.

parse_multipart( fp, pdict)
Parse input of type multipart/form-data (for file uploads). Arguments are fp for the input file and pdict for a dictionary containing other parameters in the Content-Type: header.

Returns a dictionary just like parse_qs() keys are the field names, each value is a list of values for that field. This is easy to use but not much good if you are expecting megabytes to be uploaded -- in that case, use the FieldStorage class instead which is much more flexible.

Note that this does not parse nested multipart parts -- use FieldStorage for that.

parse_header( string)
Parse a MIME header (such as Content-Type:) into a main value and a dictionary of parameters.

test( )
Robust test CGI script, usable as main program. Writes minimal HTTP headers and formats all information provided to the script in HTML form.

print_environ( )
Format the shell environment in HTML.

print_form( form)
Format a form in HTML.

print_directory( )
Format the current directory in HTML.

print_environ_usage( )
Print a list of useful (used by CGI) environment variables in HTML.

escape( s[, quote])
Convert the characters "&", "<" and ">" in string s to HTML-safe sequences. Use this if you need to display text that might contain such characters in HTML. If the optional flag quote is true, the quotation mark character (""") is also translated; this helps for inclusion in an HTML attribute value, as in <A HREF="...">. If the value to be quoted might include single- or double-quote characters, or both, consider using the quoteattr() function in the xml.sax.saxutils module instead.

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