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18.4.1 wsgiref.util - WSGI environment utilities

18.4.1 wsgiref.util - WSGI environment utilities

This module provides a variety of utility functions for working with WSGI environments. A WSGI environment is a dictionary containing HTTP request variables as described in PEP 333. All of the functions taking an environ parameter expect a WSGI-compliant dictionary to be supplied; please see PEP 333 for a detailed specification.

guess_scheme( environ)
Return a guess for whether wsgi.url_scheme should be ``http'' or ``https'', by checking for a HTTPS environment variable in the environ dictionary. The return value is a string.

This function is useful when creating a gateway that wraps CGI or a CGI-like protocol such as FastCGI. Typically, servers providing such protocols will include a HTTPS variable with a value of ``1'' ``yes'', or ``on'' when a request is received via SSL. So, this function returns ``https'' if such a value is found, and ``http'' otherwise.

request_uri( environ [, include_query=1])
Return the full request URI, optionally including the query string, using the algorithm found in the ``URL Reconstruction'' section of PEP 333. If include_query is false, the query string is not included in the resulting URI.

application_uri( environ)
Similar to request_uri, except that the PATH_INFO and QUERY_STRING variables are ignored. The result is the base URI of the application object addressed by the request.

shift_path_info( environ)
Shift a single name from PATH_INFO to SCRIPT_NAME and return the name. The environ dictionary is modified in-place; use a copy if you need to keep the original PATH_INFO or SCRIPT_NAME intact.

If there are no remaining path segments in PATH_INFO, None is returned.

Typically, this routine is used to process each portion of a request URI path, for example to treat the path as a series of dictionary keys. This routine modifies the passed-in environment to make it suitable for invoking another WSGI application that is located at the target URI. For example, if there is a WSGI application at /foo, and the request URI path is /foo/bar/baz, and the WSGI application at /foo calls shift_path_info, it will receive the string ``bar'', and the environment will be updated to be suitable for passing to a WSGI application at /foo/bar. That is, SCRIPT_NAME will change from /foo to /foo/bar, and PATH_INFO will change from /bar/baz to /baz.

When PATH_INFO is just a ``/'', this routine returns an empty string and appends a trailing slash to SCRIPT_NAME, even though empty path segments are normally ignored, and SCRIPT_NAME doesn't normally end in a slash. This is intentional behavior, to ensure that an application can tell the difference between URIs ending in /x from ones ending in /x/ when using this routine to do object traversal.

setup_testing_defaults( environ)
Update environ with trivial defaults for testing purposes.

This routine adds various parameters required for WSGI, including HTTP_HOST, SERVER_NAME, SERVER_PORT, REQUEST_METHOD, SCRIPT_NAME, PATH_INFO, and all of the PEP 333-defined wsgi.* variables. It only supplies default values, and does not replace any existing settings for these variables.

This routine is intended to make it easier for unit tests of WSGI servers and applications to set up dummy environments. It should NOT be used by actual WSGI servers or applications, since the data is fake!

In addition to the environment functions above, the wsgiref.util module also provides these miscellaneous utilities:

is_hop_by_hop( header_name)
Return true if 'header_name' is an HTTP/1.1 ``Hop-by-Hop'' header, as defined by RFC 2616.

class FileWrapper( filelike [, blksize=8192])
A wrapper to convert a file-like object to an iterator. The resulting objects support both __getitem__ and __iter__ iteration styles, for compatibility with Python 2.1 and Jython. As the object is iterated over, the optional blksize parameter will be repeatedly passed to the filelike object's read() method to obtain strings to yield. When read() returns an empty string, iteration is ended and is not resumable.

If filelike has a close() method, the returned object will also have a close() method, and it will invoke the filelike object's close() method when called.

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