There are two approaches to building extension modules on Windows, just as there are on Unix: use the distutils package to control the build process, or do things manually. The distutils approach works well for most extensions; documentation on using distutils to build and package extension modules is available in Distributing Python Modules. This section describes the manual approach to building Python extensions written in C or C++.
To build extensions using these instructions, you need to have a copy of the Python sources of the same version as your installed Python. You will need Microsoft Visual C++ ``Developer Studio''; project files are supplied for VC++ version 7.1, but you can use older versions of VC++. Notice that you should use the same version of VC++that was used to build Python itself. The example files described here are distributed with the Python sources in the PC\example_nt\ directory.
C>is the DOS prompt,
>>>is the Python prompt; note that build information and various debug output from Python may not match this screen dump exactly):
C>..\..\PCbuild\python_d Adding parser accelerators ... Done. Python 2.2 (#28, Dec 19 2001, 23:26:37) [MSC 32 bit (Intel)] on win32 Type "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information. >>> import example [4897 refs] >>> example.foo() Hello, world [4903 refs] >>>
Congratulations! You've successfully built your first Python extension module.
"spam"as its first argument (use the minimal example.c in this directory as a guide). By convention, it lives in a file called spam.c or spammodule.c. The output file should be called spam.dll or spam.pyd (the latter is supported to avoid confusion with a system library spam.dll to which your module could be a Python interface) in Release mode, or spam_d.dll or spam_d.pyd in Debug mode.
Now your options are:
In either case, copy example_nt\example.def
to spam\spam.def, and edit the new
spam.def so its second line contains the string
initspam'. If you created a new project yourself, add the
file spam.def to the project now. (This is an annoying
little file with only two lines. An alternative approach is to
forget about the .def file, and add the option
/export:initspam somewhere to the Link settings, by
manually editing the setting in Project Properties dialog).
You should now create the file spam.def as instructed in
the previous section. Add the source files to the project, using
Project > Add Existing Item. Set the pattern to
*.* and select both spam.c and spam.def and
click OK. (Inserting them one by one is fine too.)
Now open the Project > spam properties dialog. You only need to change a few settings. Make sure All Configurations is selected from the Settings for: dropdown list. Select the C/C++ tab. Choose the General category in the popup menu at the top. Type the following text in the entry box labeled Additional Include Directories:
Then, choose the General category in the Linker tab, and enter
in the text box labelled Additional library Directories.
Now you need to add some mode-specific settings:
Select Release in the Configuration
dropdown list. Choose the Link tab, choose the
Input category, and append
pythonXY.lib to the
list in the Additional Dependencies box.
Select Debug in the Configuration dropdown
list, and append
pythonXY_d.lib to the list in the
Additional Dependencies box. Then click the C/C++
tab, select Code Generation, and select
Multi-threaded Debug DLL from the Runtime
library dropdown list.
Select Release again from the Configuration dropdown list. Select Multi-threaded DLL from the Runtime library dropdown list.
If your module creates a new type, you may have trouble with this line:
Change it to:
and add the following to the module initialization function:
MyObject_Type.ob_type = &PyType_Type;
Refer to section 3 of the Python FAQ for details on why you must do this.
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